Who invented printing: History of the development of printing
Abstract: As one of the four great inventions of China, printing has greatly advanced the development of Chinese culture and made great contributions to the development and spread of world civilization after spreading to East Asia, West Asia and Europe. Do you know who invented printing? What is the history of the development of printing? Let's take a look! Who invented printing? The history of the development of printing network pictures: If there is an infringement of copyright, please contact our company who invented printing printing is one of the four great inventions of ancient China. It began in the Sui dynasty engraved printing, by the Song Emperor Renzong Bi Sheng development, perfection, produced movable type printing.
Abstract: As one of the four great inventions of China, printing has greatly advanced the development of Chinese culture and made great contributions to the development and spread of world civilization after spreading to East Asia, West Asia and Europe. Do you know who invented printing? What is the history of the development of printing? Let's take a look!
【Printing】Who invented printing? The history of printing
Who invented printing
Printing is one of the four great inventions of ancient China. It began with engraving and printing in the Sui Dynasty, and was developed and perfected by Bi Sheng during the reign of Emperor Song, resulting in movable type printing, which was spread to Europe by the Mongols, so that later people called Bi Sheng the originator of printing. Chinese printing was the forerunner of modern human civilization, creating the conditions for the widespread dissemination and exchange of knowledge.
Before the invention of printing, culture was spread mainly by hand-copied books. Hand-copying was time-consuming and laborious, and it was easy to make mistakes and omissions. It both hindered the development of culture and caused undue damage to the spread of culture. The seal and stone inscriptions provided direct empirical inspiration for printing, and the use of paper to ink topography on stone monuments directly pointed the way for engraving and printing. Chinese printing, through two stages of development: engraving and movable type printing, has given a gift to the development of mankind.
The history of printing
一、Origin of the seal
Seals existed in the pre-Qin period and generally consisted of only a few characters, indicating names, official positions, or institutions. The seals were engraved in reverse, with a difference between Yin and Yang texts. Before the emergence of paper, official documents or letters were written on documents, and after they were written, they were tied with ropes, and sticky mud was placed at the ligature to seal the knot and cover the seal on the mud, which was called mud seal, and mud seal was printed on mud, which was a means of secrecy at that time. After the emergence of paper, the mud seal evolved into a paper seal, which was stamped at the seam of several pieces of official paper or at the seal of an official paper bag. It is recorded that in the Northern Qi Dynasty (550~577 A.D.), someone made the seal used for official paper stamping so large that it resembled a small engraved plate.
1、Printing during the Warring States period (475~221 BC).
2、The famous alchemist Ge Hong of Jin Dynasty (284~363 A.D.) mentioned in his book "Baopu Zi" that Taoists already used a large wooden printing plate with 120 characters in a four-inch square (13.5×13.5) at that time. This was already a small engraved plate.
3, Buddhists were also inspired to make the sutras more vivid, often printed on the Buddha's image at the beginning of the sutras, this hand wood printing than hand-painted much less trouble.
4, stone topography technology on the invention of engraving and printing technology is very inspiring. The invention of engraved stone, the history is very early. The early Tang Dynasty found ten stone drums in present-day Fengxiang, Shaanxi Province, it is the 8th century B.C. Spring and Autumn period of Qin stone carving. Qin Shi Huang went on a tour and carved stones at important places seven times. After the Eastern Han Dynasty, stone monuments became prevalent. In the fourth year of Emperor Lingdi (175 AD), Cai Yong suggested the court to set up stone monuments of seven Confucian classics, including Shi Jing, Shang Shu, Zhou Yi, Li Ji, Spring and Autumn, Gong Yang Zhuan, and Analects, with 209,000 characters, on 46 stone monuments, each 175 high, 90 wide and 20 cm thick, with 5000 characters. It took 8 years to carve all of them. It became a classic for the readers at that time. Many people competed to copy them. Later on, especially in the Six Dynasties of the Wei Jin Dynasty, some people took advantage of the laxity of the guards or left unattended to use paper to make topographical copies of the scriptures for their own use or for sale. The result makes it widely circulated.
5, topography is one of the important conditions for the emergence of printing technology. The ancients found in the stone tablet covered with a slightly moist paper, with a soft mallet lightly, so that the paper into the text of the tablet concave, and then dry paper wrapped in cotton, dipped in ink, gently tapped on the paper, the paper will leave a black ground white characters with the stone tablet exactly the same handwriting. Such a method is easier and more reliable than hand copying. So topography appeared.
6, printing and dyeing technology also has a great role in the inspiration of engraving and printing, printing and dyeing is carved out of the pattern pattern on the board, printed on cloth with dye. There are two types of printing boards in China: convex and openwork. two pieces of printed yarn unearthed in 1972 from the Mawangdui No. 1 Han tomb in Changsha, Hunan Province (around 165 B.C.) were printed with convex boards. This technique probably predates the Qin and Han dynasties, and goes back to the Warring States. Once paper was invented, this technique could have been used in printing, by changing the cloth to paper and the dye to ink, and the print would have become an engraved print. In the Dunhuang stone chamber there are Buddha statues printed on letterpress and openwork board paper in the Tang Dynasty. The three techniques of stamping, topography, and printing and dyeing inspired each other, and with the experience and wisdom of the Chinese people, engraving and printing technology came into being.
7, the Tang Dynasty (around the 7th century) invented engraving and printing, and was commonly used in the middle and late Tang Dynasty. Early printing activities were mainly carried out in the private sector, mostly for printing Buddhist statues, sutra incantations, vow texts and calendars. In the early Tang Dynasty, Xuanzang printed the statue of Pu Xian on paper and gave it to the monks and nuns.
8. During the Northern Song Dynasty (around 11th century), Bi Sheng invented movable type printing, but it was not commonly used, but still commonly used engraved printing.
二、engraving and printing
The process of engraving and printing is roughly like this: after the writing of the manuscript is written, so that the side with the words on the board, you can engrave the words, carving workers with different forms of carving knife will be carved on the wooden plate of the antipodean ink into a raised Yang text, while the rest of the blank part of the wooden plate to remove the depression. The words carved out of the board surface are about 1~2 mm convex from the layout. Rinse the carved board with hot water and wash away the wood chips, etc. The carving process is complete. When printing, use a cylindrical flat-bottomed brush dipped in ink, evenly brush on the surface of the board, and then carefully cover the paper on the board, gently brush the paper with a brush, the paper will be printed on the positive image of the text or picture. The paper will be lifted from the printing board, shade dry, the printing process is complete. A printer can print 1,500 to 2,000 sheets a day, a printing board can even print 10,000 times.
The process of engraving the plate is somewhat like the process of engraving the seal, except that more words are engraved. The process of printing and the opposite of the seal. The seal is printed on the top, the paper in the bottom. The process of engraving and printing is somewhat like topography, but the word on the engraved plate is the reverse of the Yang text, while the word on the general stele is the positive Yin text. In addition, the ink of topography is applied to the paper, while the ink of engraving is applied to the plate. Thus, it can be seen that engraving and printing inherited the techniques of seals, topography, printing and dyeing, and also had innovative techniques.
In 1900, a beautifully printed copy of the Vajra Sutra was found in the Thousand Buddha Cave in Dunhuang, with the words "April 15 of the ninth year of the reign (868 AD)" at the end. This is the earliest printed work in the world with a clear date. This is the earliest dated print in the world. The engraved print probably began to be popular only among the people, and there was a period when it coexisted with the handwritten copies.
In 824, Yuan Zhen wrote the preface to Bai Juyi's poetry collection, saying, "During the twenty years, the walls of the forbidden provinces, temples, and post offices were filled with books, and the mouths of princes, concubines, cowherds, and horses were filled with words. As for the copy of the mold, the street sold in the market, or hold it to hand over wine and tea, everywhere." Die Le that is mold engraving, holding the wine tea is to take the white poetry printed copies to exchange for tea for wine. It can be seen that at the beginning of the ninth century, the application of printing had expanded from Buddhist mantras to poetry, which people liked to read.
Around 835, local folk in Sichuan and northern Jiangsu used to "print calendars with plates" and sell them in the market. At that time, it was said that the calendar books printed by the people were "all over the world", so it is clear that they were not only printed in Sichuan and Jiangsu.
In 883, Chengdu bookstores can see some "yin and yang miscellaneous records accounted for the dream house nine palaces five latitude stream" of the book, and "the word book elementary school", "the rate are engraved printing paper" ...... In the first two hundred years after the invention of printing, it was already an important medium for the popularization of culture among the people.
In 1944, it was found in a Tang tomb in Chengdu, an engraved printing work from the late Tang Dynasty.
During the Song Dynasty, engraving and printing had reached its heyday, and there were many different kinds of printed books. The better engraving plate material mostly used pear wood, date wood. Therefore, the engraving and printing of worthless books, there are "disaster and pear and date" idiom to satirize, meaning that the waste of pear and date wood for nothing. It can be seen when the moment book popular for a while.
Engraved printing began only monochrome printing, the Five Dynasties when someone in the illustration ink printing contour line with a pen to add a different color, to increase the visual effect. Tianjin Yangliuqing prints are still produced using this method today. Several different colors are printed on different parts of a plate at the same time, and then printed on paper at one time to produce a colorful sheet, which is called "single-plate color printing method". With this method, the Song dynasty had printed "will child" (then issued by the paper money).
Single-plate color printing color easily mixed penetration, and color block boundaries are clear, appear dull. People in the actual exploration, the discovery of the board coloring, sub-printing method, which is the same size of several printing plates were loaded with different color materials, and then printed on the same paper, this method is called "multi-page color printing" also known as "set printing". . The invention of "multi-color printing" was no later than the Yuan Dynasty, when the "Vajra Sutra Notes" engraved in Zhongxing Road (now Jiangling County, Hubei) was printed in two colors with vermilion ink, which is the earliest surviving overprint. Multi-printing with multiple colors gained greater development in the Ming Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, Nanjing and Beijing were the centers of engraving and printing. In the Ming Dynasty, the scripture factory was established, and the Northern Collection of Yongle and the Dao Collection of Zhengtong were all engraved by the scripture factory. In the Qing dynasty, Yingwu Temple book and Yongzheng's Longzang were engraved in Beijing. In the early Ming Dynasty, the Southern Collection and many official engraved books were engraved on boards in Nanjing. After Jiajing, by the middle of the 16th century, Nanjing became the center of color overprinting.